Review of Interactions Between Host Plants, Aphids, Primary Parasitoids and Hyperparasitoids in Vegetable and Cereal Ecosystems in Slovenia
Keywords:Aphid parasitoid, interactions, vegetable ecosystem, cereal ecosystem, Slovenia.
Sampling of aphids and parasitoids was conducted in diverse cereal and vegetable crop habitats in Slovenia in the period from 2006 to 2010. Over 330 samples containing primary or secondary parasitoids or both were taken. In 25 different vegetable crops 15 species of aphids parasitized by 18 species of primary parasitoids were found, and were associated with 13 species of secondary or hyperparasitoids. Eight species of primary parasitoids emerged from mummies of three species of cereal aphids. Aphidius ervi Haliday, A. rhopalosiphi de Stefani-Perez, A. uzbekistanicus Luzhetski, and Ephedrus plagiator (Nees), are generally present in cereal crops and most abundant primary parasitoids in cereal crops in Slovenia.
Nine species of hyperparasitoids were found both in cereal and vegetable crops, while four species, i.e. Alloxysta fulviceps Curtis, Coruna clavata Walker, Dendrocerus laticeps Hedicke and Pachyneuron formosum Walker, were found only in vegetable crops and two, Alloxysta brachyptera Hartig and Phaenoglyphis villosa Hartig, only in cereal. 30% of all hyperparasitoid species belonged to genus Alloxysta. Cereal and vegetable crops reveal a relatively diverse aphid parasitoid fauna that corresponds to diverse habitat, landscape and vegetation complexity in Slovenia.
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