Insecticide Resistance in the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål): Mechanisms and Status in Asian Countries
The brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (StÃ¥l) is a destructive rice pest found in almost all the rice-growing areas. In pest management strategies insecticides is the vital element to control this pest, but heavy use of chemical insecticides poses a risk of control failure because of the development of insecticide resistance. Fast insecticide resistance development nature in N. lugens intrigued scientists to extend research in understanding complex mechanism side by side regular monitoring of resistance status. Resistance mechanisms, target-site sensitivity, detoxification of insecticides, have been extensively studied and identified in governing the resistance development of N. lugens. Additionally, both field-collected and laboratory-reared pest populations were tested against several insecticides to detect insecticide resistance ratio. In this review, recent findings on resistance mechanisms, candidate genes responsible for underlying resistance development through distinct tools and techniques have been summarized. This review article provides an insight into the metabolic resistance mechanisms that confer significant levels of resistance and the current status of resistance to insecticides, which will help to get a clearer view on present research directions on insecticide resistance in N. lugens.
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