Effects of environmental variables and role of food attractants for management of Bactrocera zonata (Saunders, 1842) and Bactrocera dorsalis, (Hendel, 1912) (Diptera: Tephritidae)
The exploitation of food attractants for tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the key element widely used for pest management. Population dynamics and the relative attractiveness of five commercially available chemicals in different concentrations were studied for the suppression of both sexes of Bactrocera species in mango orchards. The fruit flies, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) exhibited maximum reduced population intensity from August to February and an increased population from March to July. The peak population of adult flies emerged in June depending on the host fruit maturity and meteorological influences. Observable differences in attractiveness between the tested products were confirmed at the experimental site of host institute. Resultantly, the attractions of female and male fruit flies of both species in Ammonium acetate, Trimethyl amine and Putrecine mixture were significantly more efficient than the male populations. Both male and female sexes exhibited an enhanced response to Torula yeast and Boric acid with the rise in their concentrations. Expressively, higher flies were collected in a combination of Torula yeast and Boric acid with 7:3 ratio. Concludingly, both Bactrocera species constantly revealed a substantial positive response to the odor of proteinaceous food attractants for their management.