Wing Venation Abnormalities in the Solitary Wasp Family Crabronidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera)
Insect wings are flexible structures composed of tubular veins and thin wing membranes. In many insect groups, wings contain distinct taxonomic characters which are easy to describe (the number and length of veins, the wing size, etc.). However, some insects may have abnormal specimens that have some veins or their parts missing, or to the contrary have additional veins on the wings. In this study, forewing abnormalities in 248 species of 53 solitary wasp genera belonging to the family Crabronidae (Hymenoptera) collected from Turkey were investigated for the first time. As a result, forewing abnormalities were detected in 37 species belonging to 18 genera from five subfamilies. In total, 20 cases of wing venation anomalies, classified as a) supernumerary veins, b) defective veins, and c) supernumerary cells were observed in 67 of 3244 specimens. The anomalies were rather common in the species Psammaecius punctulatus (n = 8, 11.94%), Bembix bidentata (n = 6, 8.95%), and Bembecinus tridens (n = 4, 7.46%). Abnormalities were generally observed in males (n=52, 75.36%) rather than females (n=17, 24.63%). The mechanism of this phenomenon, which is thought to occur due to genetic, environmental, or pathogenic reasons, has not yet been clarified in many insect groups, including Crabronidae.