New Data on Large Carpenter-bees of Turkey with Considerations About Their Importance as Pollinators
This study is formed on the basis of original data and published records on approximately 210 bee samples that have been collected almost all areas of the country, since the 1960s, which is presented based on the current knowledge of the Xylocopa Latreille 1802 fauna of Turkey. Ten species have been recognized as occurring in Turkey. Of these, three species, X. valga Gerstaecker, 1872, X. violacea (Linnaeus, 1758), and X. iris (Christ, 1791) were common and abundant. Xylocopa olivieri Lepeletier, 1841 and X. (Koptortosoma) pubescens Spinola, 1838 were moderately common, those of X. (Copoxyla) armeniaca Warncke, 1982, X. (Ancylocopa) parviceps Morawitz 1895, X. (Xylocopa) varentzowi Morawitz, 1895, X. (Ctenoxylocopa) fenestrata (Fabricius, 1798), and X. (Proxylocopa) rufa Friese, 1901 occur in restricted areas within Anatolia and could be accepted as rare species. Update floral associations and geographical distribution were included for each species. Field studies revealed that Xylocopa species, particularly X. valga, X. violacea, X. iris and X. olivieri are valuable pollinators of some cultivated plants, such as apple (Malus domestica Borkh), pear (Pyrus communis L.), plum (Prunus domestica L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), sainfoin, (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop), red clover (Trifolium pratence L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), beans (Phaseolus spp.), pea (Pisium sativum L.), chickpeas (Cicer arietium L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), licorice (Giycyrrhiza glabra L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), and Canthamus tinctorius L. Furthermore, X. pubescens has a potential in using pollination of certain plants in enclosures.
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