In Vitro Bioassay of Purpureocillium lilacinum and Bacillus thuringiensis for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) in Sarawak, Malaysia, Northern Borneo
This study aimed to evaluate strains of the entomopathogenic fungus Purpureocillium lilacinum (PL) and the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) from Sarawak for their in vitro nematicidal properties against different developmental stages of Meloidogyne incognita (MI). Ten indigenous novel strains of PL, a novel strain of the fungus (PLM), and a strain of BT carrying Cry6 and Cry14 gene sequences were screened against MI females, eggs, egg hatching and 2nd stage of active juveniles (J2). Bioassays reported PLA and PLB were designated as the best biocontrol agent against MI females, eggs and J2, indicated highest infection of females, eggs and significantly decreased egg hatching events. PLA, PLB, and PLM (positive control) demonstrated highly significant infection (>90%, P≤0.01) on MI female nematodes. Egg parasitism tests revealed that spore suspension (105 spore/mL) of PLA, PLB and PLM exhibited 78.8%, 66.0% and 73.4% parasitism on eggs, respectively. PLA, PLB and PLM with low mortality of 6.0%, 5.5% and 5.7%, respectively, showed significant (P<0.05) differences in mortality effect on J2 of MI as compared with control treatment (2.3%). Hatching of MI eggs incubated in spore suspension of PLA, PLB and PLM for seven days were reduced by 89 % when corrected for control mortality (26%).
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